*** Notice ***
Starting with the 2020 GSS (panel and cross sectional data), the GSS team no longer provides updates to the SPSS version of the GSS data file. The SPSS format has a limitation in missing value assignments that makes difficult to implement consistent missing values. In other popular software, such as Stata and SAS, it is easy to use the same missing codes (.d, .n, .i) across all variables. Moreover, we have added new missing codes resulting from adaptation implemented to the 2020 GSS: the skip on the web mode (.s), and the unavailability in given years (.y) or current release of the data (.x). This makes the total number of missing values in the GSS data exceed the maximum of three missing values allowed in SPSS. Users can still use the GSS data in SPSS by importing the Stata and SAS files; however, SPSS users should be aware that all missing values (DK, NA, IAP, and the new missing values added in 2020) will be automatically recoded to SYSMIS (.) in SPSS after importing.