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Terms and Conditions

​​NORC at the University of Chicago

The following covers the general terms and conditions for use of and its affiliated web properties.


While substantial effort has been dedicated to the review and corroboration of information and materials posted on NORC websites, we cannot guarantee the accuracy and/or timeliness of any and all contents generated by NORC or received from third parties. Any and all warranties and representations are hereby expressly disclaimed; no person may rely upon the contents of NORC websites. NORC would greatly appreciate any advice as to potential errors, website functionality issues, and other matters; such should be directed to

Current known errors that are scheduled to be fixed in the cumulative datafile, panel datafiles, and single-year datafiles can be found in the Log of Suspected Issues, along with notes about anticipated corrections for the data.  

Terms for Accessing GSS Data

Please read the following statements before viewing or downloading data.


When using GSS data in publications and presentations, the author should use the following citation:

In the Media


GSS is a project of NORC at the University of Chicago.

Our name is NORC at the University of Chicago for all media, communications, and marketing purposes.

The first reference that we recommend to reporters is: "The independent research organization NORC at the University of Chicago," with subsequent references simply NORC.

If you are using information from the General Social Survey, the citation we recommend is the following: "The General Social Survey (GSS) is a project of the independent research organization NORC at the University of Chicago, with principal funding from the National Science Foundation." Subsequent reference would be simply GSS.

In Academic Journals

Davern, Michael; Bautista, Rene; Freese, Jeremy; Herd, Pamela; and Morgan, Stephen L. General Social Survey 1972-2022. [Machine-readable data file]. Principal Investigator, Michael Davern; Co-Principal Investigators, Rene Bautista, Jeremy Freese, Pamela Herd, and Stephen L. Morgan. NORC ed. Chicago, 2023. 1 datafile and 1 codebook (2022 Release 1). 


I acknowledge that this website was established to disseminate GSS data and to improve access and increase the use of GSS data files. I will therefore make responsible use of all data, software and documentation obtained from this site.


I acknowledge that NORC at the University of Chicago, and all parties associated with the General Social Survey (including the principal investigators), offer the data and documentation "as is" with no warranty and assume no legal liability or responsibility for the completeness, accuracy, or usefulness of the data, or fitness for a particular purpose.

Copyright Notice

© 2023 NORC. Except as otherwise noted and/or attributed, all contents of NORC websites is under NORC copyright protection. No part of the contents of NORC websites may be reproduced, stored, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, in whole or in any part, without the express written consent of NORC. Requests for permissions should be directed to: “NORC” and associated graphic images are service marks of NORC and subject to United States and international trademark and other intellectual property protections.

NORC's Legal Name

The legal name of NORC at the University of Chicago is National Opinion Research Center; we are also registered to do business as NORC. NORC is an affiliate of the University of Chicago and has offices located on the University campus, as well as downtown Chicago, the DC Metro area, Atlanta, Boston, and San Francisco. NORC is an independent 501 ( c ) 3 research corporation and is not a part of the University.

Questions should be directed to


All imagery and digital assets on are owned by NORC or used by permission.